Wednesday, April 17, 2019

How mobile phones and cellular technology works?


Most of us mobile phone part of our life, but human beings are so curious about how mobile works and makes a call into our different generations and more about communications.

Let's explore the technology behind mobile communications. When you speak on your phone, your voice picked up by your phone's microphone, the microphones turn your voice into a digital signal with the help of MIMO sensor and IC (integrated circuit) . Digital signal contains, you're recording in the form of zeros and ones. Intend to, inside the phone receives fees, zeroes and ones, and transmit them in the form of electromagnetic waves and shipped to magnetic waves, transmit the zeros in one by altering the wave characteristic such as amplitude frequency, phase or combination. For example in the case of frequency 0 and 1 are transmitted by using low and high frequency respectively. So if we could find a way to transmit the electromagnetic waves to friends phone you will be able to call.


However, electromagnetic waves incapable of traveling long distances. They lose their power, due to some environmental equipment and natural hazards. In fact, if there were no issues, even then back to a magnetic waves would not carry on forever. Due to the earth's curved structure to overcome this issues, the towers were introduced the concept of cellular technology.

In cellular Technology, geographic area is divided into hexgon of cell, with they'll have their own tower and Frequency squad. Generally the powers are connected to wires or more specifically optical fiber cable optical. These fiber cable are laid under the ground, or appealed to provide national or international connectivity.

The electromagnetic waves produced by your phones are picked up by the tower in your cell and convert them into high frequency lights pulses be lights pulses are carried to the base 
transceiver box located at the base of the tower for further signal processing after processing your voice 
signal is rooted towards the destination tower upon receiving the pulses and the destination tower radiates outwards in the form of electromagnetic waves and your friends phone then receive the signal.This signal undergoes a reverse process.

And your friend, Here's your voice so it's true that mobile communications are not entirely wireless that they do use a wired medium to,this is how mobile communications are carried out. However, there was a big issue that we intentionally left unanswered. Communication is only successful when your tower transfers the signal to your friends tower, but how does your tower? No, and we sell to our area. Your friend is located.

Well, for this process, the cell tower gets help through something called mobile switching center. The 
MSC is the central point of a group up cell towers before moving further. 


Let's explain more information :

About the MSC. When you purchase a SIM card. All the subscription information is registered specified 
MSC, this MSC will be your home and your storage information to the service plan, your current location and your activity status if you move outside the range of your home MSC, the new MSC which serves and it is known as a foreign MSC as you enter a foreign MSC region. It communicates with your home MSC ensure your home MSC and always know which MSC area you are in to understand in which cell location subscriber is. 

The New MSC use a few technique one way to update subscribe location after a certain period. When the phone crosses a predefined number of towers location updates is again done. The last one of these when the phone gets turned on, lets try to understand all of these procedures,  


Discuss why the frequency spectrum is quite important in mobile phone communication. To transfer zeros and ones and digital communication. Each subscriber is allocated a frequency range. However, the frequency spectrum is available for cellular communication is quite limited and there are billions subscribers. 
This issue is solved with the help of two technology,
1. Frequency Slot distribution.
2. Multiple Access technique.
In the first technique different frequencies spot certain carefully allocated to different cells.
In the multiple access technique this frequency spot efficiently distributed among all the active users in the cell area.
Now the big Question, why are different generations of mobile phone technologies?


1G: 1G is originally allow users for the first time to carry a phone without a cable attached to it, but 1G suffered from two major problem. The first problem was that wireless transmission was in an analog format. Analog signals are easily altered by external sources. Provided poor voice quality and poor security. The second problem was that, frequency division multiple access technique, which use the available spectrum in an inefficient way.

2G: These factors pay the way for the second generation of Bobo communication to team use digital, multiple access technologies namely TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technology. The second generation also introduced a 
revolutionary data services, sms and Internet browsing.

3G: 3G Technology was focused on giving a higher data transfer speed. It uses WCDMA (Wideband code division multiple access )technique along with an increasing bandwidth to achieve the 3G speed 2 Mbps allow the transfer of data for uses such as Gps, videos, voice calls etc., 3G was a huge step and the transformation of the basic phone to smartphone .

4G: Next came 4G, which achieve Speed of 20 to 100 Mbps was suitable for high resolution movies and television. This higher speed was made possible due to OFD (Orthogonal Frequency Division) multiple access technology and MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technology. Mimo uses multiple transmitter receiver, intended inside both the mobile phone, and the tower. The next generation of mobile 5G will be rolled out soon. We'll use enhanced Mimo technology and millimeter waves. It will provide the seamless connectivity to support the Internet of things such as driver less cars and smart homes.


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